Food and Wine Frescoes from the Wei and Jin Tombs

Desert Near Wein-and-Jin Tombs, 2012
Desert Near Wei-and-Jin Tombs, 2012

In an inhospitable area between the Gobi and the Taklamakan Deserts northeast of Jaiyuguan, China a time capsule was buried almost 2000 years ago. Underneath the treeless, grey sand that blankets the region today are a series of over 1000 tombs from the Wei-and Jin period (265-420 ACE). The walls of the tombs are decorated with frescoes that depict details from everyday life in a land that was temperate, fertile and teaming with life. Images of farming, hunting, animal husbandry, cooking, feasting, and playing musical instruments adorn the walls; there is even an image of China’s early pony-express mail delivery that shows a galloping horse and a man carrying a letter in his hand with an urgent look on his face. Paintings filled with the nuances from the everyday lives of the people who lived near one of China’s main Silk Road corridors in the remote hinterlands of the dynasty.

Many of the frescoes have to do with gathering or preparing food. The one depicted below shows a woman and a girl picking mulberries or mulberry leaves. The fruits could have been used to make jams, juice, sauces, desserts or wine; or they could be dried and eaten like raisins. The leaves could have been used to give a sour flavor to food and salads, used to make tea, used as anti-inflammatory medicine, or if of the correct species to feed hungry silk-worms and provide a place for the metamorphosis of next season’s egg-laying moths.

Mulberry Picking
Mulberry Picking

The girl is wearing wearing ribbons and both she and the adult female have short hair which identify them as from the Qiuci ethnic group. The Qiuci were Indo-European settlers in ancient China who spoke an Indo-Iranian dialect, traded on the Silk Road, and eventually became part of the early Uyghur empire. Many historians believe that they arose from the people who first brought Buddhism into China from India and Pakistan. Given the Indo-European roots of the Qiuci, the mulberry leaves could have been used as a flavoring for bread, as is done in some Indian parathas today.


The second fresco presented here show servants preparing a meal. The head cook is picking meat from bones on a board to the right. Possibly recycling meat for another meal from uneaten parts of a roast, or preparing bones for soup. Mutton is hanging from hooks on the ceiling to age, and another cook is stirring a pot to the left. In the foreground and background there appear to be steamer trays lined with dumplings or buns.

Warming Wine
Warming Wine

The third fresco shows a maid warming wine. She holds a tray with cups in her right hand and with her left she reaches for a ladle to fill the cups with wine from the warmer. Grape and raisin production and wine-making is an ancient industry in Xinjiang and Gansu and this painting shows the popularity of wine in the Wei and Jin Dynasty.

Dining on Kebaba
Dining on Kebabs

The last painting shows two men having dinner together. The man to the left is the host of the meal and perhaps a noble because he is sitting on a low-bed or a couch. His guest is someone of relatively equal importance because he is depicted at the side of the host and more or less the same size as the host (other frescos denote a marked difference in the size between master or mistress and their servants). The guest proffers a large trident-like skewer with bite-size bits of meat on it – kebabs. Although evidence for kebab eating goes back to Akrotiri, Greece in the 17th Century BCE, and possibly earlier to Ancient Mesopotamia, this fresco gives a solid date range to the food in western China at almost 2000 years ago. Introduced to China by Indo-Europeans coming across the main track of the Northern Silk Road (the Uyghur word is kewap), kebabs are now enjoyed all across China.

Many other images are captured in the tomb paintings: dancing, raising chickens, a Bactrian camel on a lead, and herding horses. To preserve the paintings, only one or two tombs are open to the public at a time and different tombs are open on a rotating basis to allow for repeat visits. One has to descend almost 30 meters beneath the arid surface to enter the cool, damp rooms of the tombs to view the frescoes, but it is a unique way to experience life in ancient China. Where there is now barren desert, there were rich farms, pastureland, and trading posts teaming with travelers and traders, moving goods, ideas and culture around on the Silk Road. (Words by Laura Kelley; Photos from postcards of the Wei and Jin Tombs by Laura Kelley (photography is not allowed in the tombs)).


4 thoughts on “Food and Wine Frescoes from the Wei and Jin Tombs

  1. How fascinating, Laura! Almost a case of ‘the more things change, the more they stay the same’ . . .And how pragmatic to allow serious visitore to experience but not make this necessarily a ‘popular tourist attraction’! I just wonder what climate changes or misuse of resources happened there to make a once obviously fertile land into a forsaken desert!!

    • Hi Eha:

      The change in climate for the area is almost completely about changes in rainfall patterns. There are some areas of Xinjiang (a bit west of the area depicted and out to the Kyrgyz border) that get about 1/4-inch of rain per year. It is like driving through landscape that I imagine Tolkien’s Mordor to look like. Interestingly, areas that get a lot of snow-melt from the mountains are lush and fertile while the water flows down form the mountains. Then most things except scrub grass and the like die until the next seasonal flood. It is all about water.

  2. Now you have piqued my interest with mulberry leaves. I never knew they had any use aside from a diet for silkworms.

    The drawings are magnificent –– I love the graphic simplicity of them. I am a cave addict — mad for ancient cave art so the idea of underground tombs are terribly exciting to me (that and mercury lakes –– who thinks of these things?).

    They are fragile though, aren’t they? People should wear respirators when they walk through.

    Really great, Laura. Thanks for sharing these treasures.

    • Hi Deana:

      Yes Mulberry leaves and tart, nutritious and used all over the world. The Levant has unique uses for them as well. Non-culinary uses of the pith beneath the bark of the wood is papermaking ancient style. A couple of months ago, I was at an artisanal paper making site outside of Samarkand that still used the mulberry wood for its paper as the Chinese did a couple of millennia ago.

      If you cook any neat things with mulberry – please tag me – thanks!

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