Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie

There is a chill in the air and early mornings before the sun are best spent wrapped in a blanket, so it is time to welcome Autumn in once again.  Sort of like a migratory bird taking its cues from the failing sun, I’ve realized that it is time for my annual exploration of Mesopotamian Cuisine.  I have long wanted to try some of the complex fowl recipes on the Yale Babylonian Collection tablet 8958 and decided to try recipe 1 for Wildfowl Pie.

My review of the finished dish is below, but I can say that preparing it was fascinating. Specifically, what I am in awe about is that such an ancient recipe (from around 1700 BCE) produced a dish that seems so . . . familiar.  Surely, cooking gives us insight into their world, but it also shows us how so many ancient traditions and elements of material culture continue to resonate today.

The original ingredients on the tablet are: Fowl, water, milk, salt, fat, cinnamon, mustard greens, shallots, semolina, leeks, garlic, flour, brine, roasted dill seeds, mint, wild tulip bulbs.  From these basics, the ingredients below were drawn with some substitution, either for convenience in cooking or because of disagreement with the original translation. I used Cornish game hen instead of wildfowl largely because I had several on hand. The original recipe does not specify what type of bird should be used; it says only “small” birds. If you choose to try the recipe with quail or other bird, you will need a lot more than 2 and you will need to adjust the cooking time.

Tablet YBC 8958

I used mustard greens instead of rue, largely because I wasn’t convinced that Bottero had identified the plant correctly. Sibburatu is a highly aromatic plant of which both the leaves AND the seeds are used. Rue leaves are used in cooking, but to my knowledge, the seeds are not. On the other hand, mustard does offer a sharp flavor and both the leaves and seeds are used. Additional evidence that Sibburatu may be mustard instead of rue is that it was extensively used for poultices – especially on the eyes – and to treat a variety of internal ailments, particularly urinary tract infections. You may have a different sense of pain than I, but I would not want a poultice of rue on my eyes or on any other part of my body given the pain and blisters in is known to cause.

The “aromatic wood” specified by Bottero is not kasu (licorice) so my first best guess is that it is cinnamon which would have been known at the time of the tablets either by direct contact with Sri Lanka or indirect via Egypt which was the single largest purchaser of cinnamon from the Southern Asian island paradise. As to sebetu, Bottero thought these were small rolls made out of grain, which doesn’t make a great deal of culinary sense. I however think that they are dill seeds because sibetum is dill in Assyrian, and the vowel shift is inconsequential (in this case). I think that sebetu-rolls as specified by Bottero are roasted dill seed that is used to flavor both the crust and the pie. I added ground cilantro and cumin seeds because both spices were known by the Mesopotamians, and such variation was not only well within the expected use of such a “recipe”, but it was indeed expected that cooks would personalize them.

I chose to make the crust from a mix of rye and white flour. Rye would have been known to the ancient Mesopotamians and I thought it would work well with a savory pie. However I used white flour instead of spelt or emmer for convenience. I have spelt on hand, but wanted a dough with a consistency and flavor that would work with rye. The amount of dough made with the recipe is more than ample to fill a large pie dish and cover. If desired, you can make rye crackers or something else with the remainder.

The layered assembly of the pie is written in the tablet, which specifies a layer of mint on the bottom of the pie followed by a layer of chicken. Based on this recipe, the Babylonians were layering dishes a few millenia before the Persians – who are usually given credit for the technique – started doing it. Thus, layering is another culinary technique with deep regional roots that is still found today and one that has spread widely from its point of origin.

Without much further ado, the ingredients and method:

Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie

Hens for Pie
2 Cornish game hens
2 teaspoons of sea salt
8 cups of water
6 cups of whole milk
2 tablespoons of butter
2 large (4-5 inch) Sri Lankan cinnamon sticks
6-10 mustard leaves, well rinsed and chopped
1 tablespoon of dried mint
2 tablespoons garlic diced
6 medium shallots, peeled and chopped
2 leeks, thoroughly cleaned and chopped
2 tablespoons of semolina

1.5 cups of rye flour
1.5 cups of white flour (plus extra for flouring kneading and rolling surfaces)
½ cup butter, cut up into small pieces
½ -¾ cup of whole milk
¼ – 1/3 cup brine (3 cups water to ¼ cup sea salt), chilled
¼ cup dill seeds lightly roasted in a pan or oven

Salt the hens liberally inside and out and set aside.  In a saucepan large enough to hold the hens submerged in liquid, heat water and milk.  Add butter, cinnamon sticks, mustard greens and mint and stir.  When it just approaches a boil remove from flame and stir.  It will be necessary to watch the pot, as the milk will make it froth and boil over as it comes to a boil.  Let for about 10 minutes and pulse the shallots, leeks and garlic in a food processor until they are blended but still have form.

Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie – Assembled

Place hens in the pot and return to flame.  Cook partially covered over medium heat until the liquid approaches a boil.  Stir, reduce flame and add chopped vegetables along with semolina and stir again.  Cook partially covered over medium-low heat (gas-mark 4) for about 20-25 minutes, stirring occasionally. About halfway through cooking flip the hens.  The hens will be done when you can easily push a spoon through the back.  When done remove and set aside to cool until the hens can be deboned by hand.  Continue to cook the broth the milk and water mixture over low flame until it is reduced by at least half. Stir occasionally. If the mixture starts to curdle up, stop cooking and remove from heat.

While waiting for the hens to cool, mix flour and butter with a pastry cutter until it begins to come together like cornmeal.  Then add milk one tablespoon at a time until moist enough to form a ball.  Then add brined water until the flour comes together into a dough and you are able to knead the dough.  (Please note that the moisture needed to form the dough depends upon the quality, grind and hydration of the flour and the climate.  Please use the measurements above as recommendations, and use less or more depending upon your local requirements.)  Knead for 5 full minutes until dough is uniform, soft and nicely pliable.  If it starts to stick to your hands as you knead, simply add a bit more flour to the surface until the dough integrity is restored.  When you are done kneading the dough, form it into a ball and then divide the ball into two pieces for the bottom and top crusts.  Add about half of the dill seeds to the dough for the top crust and work through thoroughly. Then let the dough rest for a while. Refrigerate for about half an hour to cool the butter a bit.

Leaves from 10-12 mint sprigs, rinsed and dried (a heap of mint leaves)
Shredded meat from game hens cooked in part one
2 teaspoons salt
Mustard greens, rinsed and torn
1 teaspoon cinnamon
2 tablespoons garlic, minced
8-10 shallots
2 leeks, rinsed well and chopped
1 tablespoon cilantro seeds, ground
2 teaspoons cumin seed, ground
Remaining roasted dill seed from part one
4 tablespoons butter

Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Liberally flour your rolling surface, flatten the ball of dough that will form the bottom crust and lightly flour both sides.  From the center of the dough, roll out bottom crust to be a couple of inches larger than the pie dish you are using.  The dough may be very elastic and a bit sticky given the mixture of flours.  If the dough gets sticky, just dust it with a bit of flour and continue rolling.  Spray or butter the dish and fold the rolled out dough into quarters before lining the pie dish with it.  Fit the dough into the crust by easing it into the curves rather than stretching the dough.

Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie Ready for the Oven

Layer the bottom of the crust with half of the mint leaves. Over them place about half of the shredded chicken mixed with have of the chopped shallots, leeks and garlic. Sprinkle 1 teaspoon of the salt over chicken and vegetables and then place a layer of mustard leaves over this.  Mound the chicken and greens towards the center as you would apples in an apple pie.  Sprinkle the cinnamon over the mustard greens and add 1 teaspoon of the ground cilantro and cumin seeds.

Now place the remaining chicken mixed with the remaining chopped shallots, leeks, and garlic over the mustard greens.  Add the remaining salt over the mixed meat and vegetables.  Add the remaining mint, roasted dill leaves and ground cilantro and cumin onto the final layer. Slice half the butter and place on top of the last layer.

Flatten the dough with the roasted dill seeds in it into a disk and lightly flour each side.  Starting from the center, roll the dough out into the top crust.  Make sure that it is at least a couple of inches larger than the dish.  Fold the dough into quarters and place it on top of the pie and unfold.  Pinch the top and bottom crusts together firm with your fingers and trim the excess crust with a sharp knife.  If desired, press the crusts with the tines of a fork to seal them.

Pierce the top crust in several places and slice the remaining butter and place evenly around the crust.  Place on the top shelf of your preheated oven towards the rear and bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for about 30 minutes – just enough for the crusts to cook.

When done, remove from the oven and let sit for at least 15-20 minutes before serving. Serve with the reduced broth that the chicken cooked in presented in small bowls.  The broth can be spooned onto the pie or sipped separately.

A Slice of Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie

So how was it?  It was savory and delicious. The flavor of the rye and the roasted dill in the crust was fabulous and my husband really liked the taste of the layer of mustard leaves inside the pie and the flavor that it offered. The principal flavors of the filling are, in addition to hen and shallots are mint and dill. The cilantro and the cumin seeds (particularly the cumin seeds) add body and depth to these light and airy flavors. I found the interplay of the onions and mint very interesting. This is again another flavor combination that persists in Iranian food today, most strongly evident in their wonderful pickled onion and mint condiments. We both like the broth that was served to accompany the pie. My husband spooned it over the pie and enjoyed it like that and I sipped the broth in between bites.

There is one thing that puzzled me about the pie. Most of the time when the triad of shallots, garlic and leeks are pounded together, there is a binding element, like kissimu (drained yogurt) or occasionally blood. Frankly, the pie could have used a little kissimu in it to bind and moisten it. At some point, I will try this again with the kissimu and if it is a good addition, I will post the amendment to the recipe in this post.

One word of warning, the pie is a fair amount of work. When and if you attempt it, it is best to have most of the day available to prepare it and then give yourself a bit of a rest before tucking in. If you try this or any other of the recipes from the Yale tablets, please let me know – I’d love to hear about your experiences. More original recipes are available on the site as well as some of my revised translations of food words.  You may also look at the results of our 2011 Mesopotamian Cookoff for some recipes developed by accomplished international cooks and chefs like Tenderloin with Licorice, Lamb and Carob Stew, Roasted Barley and Herb Pilaf as well as Sweet Mersu and Savory Mersu. (Words by Laura Kelley, Photo of YBC 8958 from Wikimedia, Photos of Mesopotamian Pie Assembled, ready for the oven and sliced by Laura Kelley.)


25 thoughts on “Mesopotamian Wildfowl Pie

  1. On a busy Sunday afternoon this story and recipe have made me sit aback. Who else but Laura to teach us so wonderfully well of something so inherently simple: a ‘bird’ pie dedicated to a place and the culture joining all of us together after all!! Enjoy, join Laura’s and learn s’thing every time she prints!

  2. You are amazing! Once again you have combined your history, linguistics and culinary skills to breathe life into a recipe that has been “lost” for millenia. Along with the other recipes you and the others have developed, an impressive body of work is beginning to take shape. More, more, I’m still not satistifed! (Keep up the great work!)

    • Hi Rachael:

      Its such a pleasure to read such praise in the morning. Many thanks, I’m glad you appreciate the post!


  3. I just found this site am amazed at the level of scholaship that goes into the posts! I’ve never seen a site quite like this – with original translations and developed recipes from ancient history. Do you have a book with these recipes available?

    • Hi Joyce:

      Welcome to the Silk Road Gourmet!

      Sorry to say there is no book with these recipes – yet. that is a project for a future date. I just want to continue to cook more of them and “rediscover” more about thie food culture and cuisines.

  4. Laura,

    Pliny and Culpepper have references to Rue being used to aid sight. I used to grow it because it’s an attractive herb but never used it… in fact I was always wary of it and later found out it’s association with abortion.

    I note your comments about the mint. The Brits wouldn’t dream of eating roast lamb without mint sauce, either a sweetened jelly or sharp with vinegar…. is it the same elsewhere? I have never heard of incorporating dill seeds in a pastry crust… perhaps we should be more adventurous with our pastry recipes.

    The fact that the Mesopotamians were cooking pies like this is amazing. Another excellent post Laura, keep it up.


    • Hi Cid:

      It might be rue. Rue would add a distinct bitter flavor to the dish and is still used in regional cooking today. This issues remain, however, that rue seeds are not used in cooking (Syrian rue isn’t really rue, and it packs a wallop of a high I’ve been told), and that poultices were made and applied externally to the eyes in the Assyrian definition of the herb. Rue applied externally causes terrible blisters, espeically in warm climates, and its seeds are not used in cooking, so it didn’t meet all of the criteria in the description.

      Do Culpepper or Pliny detail how the rue was used to aid sight? If in a potion, that would be potentially more beneficial than as a poultice.

      I like your info about mint. Mint jelly has made it over to the states and is part of the traditional presentation of lamb that is vanishing with the passage of time. Older folks still like it while younger folks despise it. The info about the mint with vinegar is interesting to me, because, I will bet that it is a very old South Asian influence on British cuisine, and that modern people have simply forgotten its roots. (See the posts on my site by Miles on Elizabeth David and by me on Henry VIII). How is the mint sauce with vinegar made in Britain? I’m wondering if it isn’t like a savory chutney.

      Agree about the dill seeds – they were tasty! These days, we usually one press things into crusts or breads when they are almost ready for the oven. The method in the Babylonian recipe clearly said to work the sebetu into the dough, and then to scatter them around inside the pie before closing the crusts.

      Fascinating that the pot-pies at the pub have an ancient lineage, isn’t it?

      Good to hear from you!

  5. Laura,

    ‘The juice of it and fennel, with a little honey, and the gall of a cock put thereunto, helps the dimness of the eye-sight’ …. so sayeth Culpepper! There’s lots of references to Rue on line and photos of blistered skin too, but I did find one source that is currently selling a solution with Rue to be diluted with water and used as an eye wash. Don’t fancy it myself.

    Mint sauce or jelly is very popular in the UK. The finely chopped leaves of mint are steeped in vinegar and sometimes a little sugar, a teaspoon or so drizzled onto roasted lamb. The jelly is made with a base of apple. In my fridge at the moment is a small jar of mint sauce made with balsamic vinegar, sugar and grape must. If you have several different types of mint growing in the garden, it’s best to make tea from the leaves before choosing the one you think would be best for sauce… views on which type vary. Some say the Romans introduced it? Either way I cannot imagine eating it with anything but lamb so a small jar has to last for some time.


    • The recipes in Culpepper and the like are almost always potions for indigestion.

      The bit about the mint was very interesting. I doubt that the Romans “introduced” it. It is much more complex than any of the mint sauces for lamb or fish that I know of from ancient Rome (see Apicius). It may be older than that – not sure and chasing other targets at the moment. Thanks for the info though!

  6. Well, I finally did it! I used guinea fowl as they were available and shortcrust pastry but did put in lots of roasted dill seed and used arugala in stead of mustard greens as, being English I didn’t know what those were. It came out brilliantly!!!! The flavours were amazing and the whole party were delighted and very happy to eat such an unusual, tasty combination with such a history.

    So thank you.

    Never again, of course, you were right about time consuming and tiring!


  7. Just stumbled across this website whilst searcing for old recipes, and I’m glad I did. This recipe alone is fantastic.
    It’s refreshing to see that there are still proper food websites out there!

    • Thanks for the kind words, Ryan. Welcome to Silk Road Gourmet. I hope you follow the site, and participate in the discussions, etc. Looking forward to hearing more from you!

  8. ” As to sebetu, Bottero thought these were small rolls made out of grain, which doesn’t make a great deal of culinary sense. I however think that they are dill seeds because sibetum is dill in Assyrian, and the vowel shift is inconsequential (in this case). I think that sebetu-rolls as specified by Bottero are roasted dill seed that is used to flavor both the crust and the pie.”

    I know nothing of Assyrian, so pardon me if I ask a question… 🙂 Possibly the “small rolls made our of grain” – and again I don’t know if this is completely outside the time period – are hand rolled cous cous?

    • Hi Julie:

      I have to encourage you for the guess, but I don’t think so. There is another word in my Mesopotamian food lexicon that can sometimes denote a sort of cous-cous though. It is, “samidu,” which I believe means semolina. However it is used to denote different forms of flour in the recipes, and I believe that a cous-cous like preparation might be one of them. One of the cooks in the original Yale Babylonian cookoff indeed served his dish on cous-cous per my advice. Also, although Bottero was a pioneer, and I do have a lot of respect for him, he was very old when he tackled the Yale tablets and, I believe he did a lot of things right, but some things, quite wrong. I wrote an article about some of the things for Saudi Aramco World a few years back if you want to chase this down the rabbit hole . . . I also have uncovered a number of recipes that no one has identified in the past or cooked before. Someday I will hold a second cookoff with these.

    • Hi Jane:

      That is because I’ve never gotten a chance to experiment around with which species they might be. I felt it better to omit the ingredient, which ranges from tasty to nasty (and poisonous), than to leave it open for experimentation by individual cooks. It is on the long list of things to do someday.

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